Stress, Microstructure and Stability of Mo/Si, W/Si, and Mo/C Multilayer Films

  • Windt D.

The stresses in periodic Mo/Si, W/Si, and Mo/C multilayer films have been determined from wafer-curvature measurements. The layer thickness of each material was varied systematically, and parametric stress contours were generated, showing contours-of-constant-stress in the two-dimensional layer-thickness parameter space. These results illustrate that the net stress in a periodic multilayer ...

Fast Identification of Stop Words for Font Learning and Keyword Spotting

  • Ho T.

A recently proposed adaptive strategy for text recognition attempts to derive knowledge about the dominant font on a given page. The strategy uses a linguistic observation that over half of all words in a typical English passage are contained in a small set of less than 150 stop words. The ...

Near-Optimal Hardness Results and Approximation Algorithms for Edge-Disjoint Paths and Related Problems

  • Guruswami V.
  • Khanna S.
  • Rajaraman R.
  • Shepherd B.
  • Yannakakis M.

We study the approximability of two classes of network routing problems. The first class of problems in our study correspond to classical multicommodity flow problems of the following form: We are given a network G with integer capacities on its edges, together with source-sink pairs (s sub i, t sub ...

Long Wavelength Superlattice Quantum Cascade Lasers at lambda~17 microns

  • Capasso F.
  • Cho A.
  • Gmachl C.
  • Hutchinson A.
  • Sivco D.
  • Tredicucci A.

We report the realization of the first semiconductor injection lasers based on intraband transitions with emission wavelengths extending beyond the atmospheric windows. The structure uses the quantum cascade scheme with "chirped" superlattices as active material. Laser action in pulsed operation is achieved at lambda~17 microns up to 150 K, with ...

Pattern Processing Results and Characteristics for SCALPEL(TM) Masks

  • Blakey M.
  • Farrow R.
  • Kasica R.
  • Knurek C.
  • Liddle J.
  • Novembre A.
  • Peabody M.

SCALPEL(TM) (SCattering with Angular Limitation in Projection Electron Beam Lithography) masks consisting of a 150 nm thick SiN sub x, membrane layer and 25-27.5 nm and 5-6 nm thick tungsten and chromium scatterer bi-layer have been fabricated and used to investigate pattern transfer processes for the mask scatterer layer. Wet ...

An Injection Locked 0.25 micron CMOS 5.6Gb/s Clock and Data Recovery Cell

  • Gabara T.

A sub-harmonic clock signal in a 5.6 Gb/s NRZ (Non Return to Zero) 2 sup 7 -1 pseudo-random data stream is used to injection lock a CMOS LC tank circuit to 2.8GHz. The data stream is de-serialized into two 2.8Gb/s data streams by a parallel combination of a positive and ...

A 3.25Gb/s Injection Locked CMOS Clock Recovery Cell

  • Gabara T.

A clock signal embedded in a NRZ (Non Return to Zero) 2 sup (31) -1 pseudo-random data stream is used to injection lock a slave CMOS LC tank circuit. The slave oscillator in turn generates a clock signal responsive to this stimulus and is used to capture the data. A ...

Antimonides with the Half-Heusler Structure: New Thermoelectric Materials

  • Cava R.
  • Khalifah P.
  • Mastronardi K.
  • Ramirez A.
  • Wang C.
  • Young D.

The thermoelectric properties near ambient temperature of half-Heusler alloys based on LnPdSb, where Ln=Ho, Er, and Dy, are reported. The Seebeck coefficients are large, between 60 and 250 m V/K. The dominant carriers in the electrical conduction are holes. The resistivities range between 0.6 and 20 mOMEGAcm. Thermal conductivities are ...

Monolithically Integrated Semiconductor Optical Amplifier and Electroabsorption Modulator with Dual-Wavelength Expansion-Beam Input

  • Chu S.
  • Focht M.
  • Freund J.
  • Glogovsky K.
  • Grenko J.
  • Johnson J.
  • Ketelsen L.
  • Lentz J.
  • Luther L.
  • Pernell T.
  • Peticolas L.
  • Przybylek G.
  • Reynolds C.
  • Romero D.
  • Smith L.
  • Sputz S.
  • Stampone D.
  • Tzafaras N.
  • Vandenberg J.
  • Walters F.

We have demonstrated a semiconductor optical amplifier and electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with a novel dual-waveguide beam expander at the input for low-loss coupling to Planar lightguide circuit silica waveguides or cleaved single mode optical fiber. These devices exhibit greater than 10 dB fiber-to-fiber gain, output power of +4 dBm, ...

High-Capacity Lightwave Transmission Experiments

  • Chraplyvy A.

In recent years, the demonstrated transmission capacity of single-mode fibers has increased at over 4 dB per year. This progress has led to numerous systems experiments with capacities of 1 Tb/s and higher. Commercial systems have experienced similar capacity growth rates with Lucent's WaveStar 400B system providing up to 400 ...

Scheduling and Data Replication to Improve Tape Jukebox Performance

  • Hillyer B.
  • Rastogi R.
  • Silberschatz A.

An increasing number of database applications require on-line access to massive amounts of data. Since large-scale storage systems implemented entirely on magnetic disk can be impractical or too costly for many applications, tape jukeboxes can provide an attractive solution. Unfortunately, current implementations of tape jukeboxes deliver poor performance for applications ...

Printing Process Suitable for Reel-to-Reel Production of High Performance Organic Transistors and Circuits

  • Bao Z.
  • Braun P.
  • Makhija A.
  • Rogers J.

This paper describes the use of microcontact printing in an "upside-down" fabrication sequence for producing organic transistors and circuitry with critical dimensions as small as 1 micron. The scheme is compatible with rapid, reel-to-reel patterning of organic electronics for a range of applications. Fabrication of high-quality transistors with 2 micron ...

Coulomb Effects at the Metal-Insulator Transition of Disordered Electrons

  • Si Q.
  • Varma C.

At low enough density, the screening length of a disordered interacting electron gas may become larger than its mean free path. Calculation of the conductivity in such a case shows a strong tendency towards the insulating state in two dimensions. The compressibility being proportional to the inverse screening length is ...

Half-Filled Landau Level as a Fermi Liquid of Dipolar Quasiparticles

  • Halperin B.
  • Simon S.
  • Stern A.
  • Von Oppen F.

In this paper, we study the relation between the coventional Fermion-Chem-Simons (FCS) theory of the half-filled Landau level (v = 1/2), and alternate descriptions that are based on the notion of neutral quasi-particles that carry electric dipole moments. We have previously argued that these two approaches are equivalent, and that, ...

Observation of Collective Excitations of the Dilute 2D Electron System

  • Dennis B.
  • Eriksson M.
  • Pfeiffer L.
  • Pinczuk A.
  • Simon S.
  • West K.

We report inelastic light scattering measurements of dispersive spin and charge density excitations in dilute 2D electron systems reaching densities less than 10 sup (10) cm sup (-2). In the quantum Hall state at v = 2, roton critical points in the spin inter-Landau level mode show a pronounced softening ...

Efficient Techniques for Modeling Chip-Level Interconnect, Substrate and Package Parasitics

  • Feldmann P.
  • Kapur S.
  • Long D.

Modern IC design requires accurate analysis and modeling of chip-level interconnect, the substrate and package parasitics. Traditional approaches for such analyses are computationally expensive. In this paper, we discuss some recent novel schemes for extraction and reduced order modeling that help overcome this computational bottleneck.

Real-Time Implementation of a Stereophonic Acoustic Echo Canceler

  • Benesty J.
  • Eneroth P.
  • Gaensler T.
  • Gay S.

In this memo, a real-time implementation of a stereophonic acoustic echo canceler is presented. Possible applications are desktop and video conferencing, where two channel audio will enhance signal separation, especially when several talkers speak simultaneously. The stereophonic acoustic echo canceler uses the two channel fast recursive least squares adaptive fibers ...

Electrical Activation Kinetics for Shallow Boron Implants in Silicon

  • Bourdelle K.
  • Fiory A.

Diffusion mediated electrical activation of boron implanted in Si at 10 sup (15) cm sup (-2) dose and energies from 500 eV to 1 keV, which involves B-Si clusters, was examined over a wide variation in annealing conditions. Diffusion depths and carrier densities were determined by modeling sheet electrical transport. ...

Substrate Injection and Crosstalk in CMOS Circuits

  • Briaire J.
  • Krisch K.

Substrate noise injection is evaluated, at a transistor level, for a 0.25 micron CMOS technology, to determine the mechanisms that contribute to substrate crosstalk. Impact ionization current and capacitive coupling from the drain and source junctions are found to be the most significant contributors to substrate current injection. Their relative ...

Why Changes in Bond Lengths and Cohesion Lead to Core-Level Shifts in Metals, and Consequences for the Spatial Difference Method

  • Muller D.

In metals, the chemical shifts of core-level energy loss spectra are largely determined not by charge transfers, but instead by valence band shifts. The valence band shifts in turn are determined by changes in bandwidth, which result from changes in the type, number and distance to neighboring atoms. The core-level ...