A Unified Approach to Approximating Resource Allocation and Scheduling

  • Bar-Noy A.
  • Bar-Yehuda R.
  • Naor J.
  • Schieber B.

We present a general framework for solving resources allocation and scheduling problems. Given a resource of fixed size, we present algorithms that approximate the maximum throughput or the minimum loss by a constant factor. Our approximation factors apply to many problems, among which are: (i) real-time scheduling of jobs on ...

Quantification of Excess Vacancy Defects From High-Energy Ion Implantation in Si by Au Labeling

  • Gossmann H.
  • Haynes T.
  • Jacobson D.
  • Kalyanaraman R.
  • Rafferty C.
  • Venezia V.

It has been shown recently that Au labeling (V.C. Venezia et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2980, 1998) can be used to profile vacancy- type defects located near half the projected range (1/2 Rp) in MeV-implanted Si. In this letter we have determined the ratio of vacancies annihilated to Au ...

Downlink Adaptive Array Algorithms for Cellular Mobile Communications

  • Morgan D.

The capacity of wireless downlink communication to mobile receivers in a dense urban environment is limited primarily by co-channel interference. Downlink adaptive arrays can be used to mitigate this limitation, thereby offering the potential for increased capacity. The basic objective is to maximize the power transmitted to desired in-cell mobiles ...

3.28 Tb/s (82x40 Gb/s) Transmission over 3x100 km Nonzero-Dispersion Fiber Using Dual C and L-Band Hybrid Raman/Erbium-Doped Inline Amplifiers

  • Cabot S.
  • Chen Z.
  • Feder K.
  • Gruner-Nielsen L.
  • Hansen P.
  • Hsu L.
  • Judy A.
  • Kan C.
  • Nelson L.
  • Nielsen T.
  • Park J.
  • Park S.
  • Peckham D.
  • Rottwitt K.
  • Stentz A.
  • Strasser A.
  • Stulz S.
  • Sulhoff J.
  • Vengsarkar D.

We demonstrate transmission of a record aggregate capacity of 3.28Tb/s (82x40 Gb/s PRBS 231-1 NRZ) over 3x100km of a prototype TrueWave(R) fiber with ultra low dispersion slope. The system for the first time incorporate dual C and L band transmission and distributed Raman amplification in addition to the 40Gb/s line ...

Stress in Frictionless Granular Material: Adaptive Network Simulations

  • Tkachenko A.
  • Witten T.

We present a minimalistic approach to simulations of force transmission through granular systems. We start from a configuration containing cohesive (tensile) contact forces and use an adaptive procedure to find the stable configuration with no tensile contact forces. The procedure works by sequentially removing and adding individual contacts between adjacent ...

Local Spin Resonance and Spin-Peierls-Like Phase Transition in a Geometrically Frustrated Antiferromagnet

  • Broholm C.
  • Cheong S.
  • Kim T.
  • Lee S.
  • Ratcliff W.

Using inelastic magnetic neutron scattering we have discovered a localized spin resonance at 4.5 meV in the ordered phase of the geometrically frustrated cubic antiferromagnet ZnCr sub 2 O sub 4. The resonance develops abruptly from quantum critical fluctuations upon cooling through a first order transition to a co-planar antiferromagnet ...

Internetworking Connectionless and Connection-Oriented Networks

  • Karol M.
  • Veeraraghavan M.

The use of connection-oriented (CO) networks for the transport of IP traffic is seen to have value to both users and service providers. Given the expectation that most endpoint-generated traffic will be in the form of connectionless (CL) IP datagrams, we address the problem of how to internetwork a CL ...

Transient Plasma-Induced Emission Analysis of Laser-Desorbed Species During Cl sub 2 Plasma Etching of Si

  • Choe J.
  • Donnelly V.
  • Fuller N.
  • Herman I.

The surface during the etching of Si in a Cl sub 2 inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) was analyzed by laser desorption (LD), followed by detection of the desorbed species by monitoring the transient changes by plasma- induced emission (PIE). Optical emission from Si, SiCl, SiCl sub 2 and possibly Si sub ...

Chemical Bonding and Fermi Level Pinning at Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces

  • Tung R.

The insensitivity of experimentally observed Schottky barrier heights (SBH) to the metal work function is known as Fermi level pinning. Since the time of Bardeen, this phenomenon has traditionally been attributed to interface gap states, even though many basic assumptions of the gap state models have been shown to disagree ...

Unifying the Thermal-Chemical (TC) and Anode-Hole-Injection (AHI) gate-oxide breakdown models

  • Cheung K.

Recent experimental data obtained from medium thickness, high-quality thermal-oxide clearly indicates that the logarithmic oxide lifetime is linearly proportional to the oxide field in the mid-to-low field range. This strong support for the E model lends credibility to the Thermal-Chemical (TC) model proposed by McPherson et al. In this work, ...

Hierarchical Networks and the LSA N-Squared Problem in OSPF Routing

  • Aho A.
  • Lee D.

With N routers in a network running the OSPF routing protocol a network topology update can generate on the order of N sup 2 LSA packets. This phenomenon, known as the LSA N-Squared Problem, severely degrades network performance and scalability. Hierarchical OSPF network architectures have been proposed to reduce the ...

Computing the Unmeasured: An Algebraic Approach to Internet Mapping

  • Shavitt Y.
  • Sun X.
  • Wool A.
  • Yener B.

Distance estimation is important to many Internet applications, most notably for a WWW client that needs to select a server among several potential candidates. Current approaches to distance (i.e. time delay) estimation in the Internet are based on placing Tracer stations in key locations and conducting measurements between them. The ...

Inelastic X-ray Scattering as a Novel Tool to Study the Electronic Strucutre of Mott Insulators

  • Hasan M.
  • Isaacs E.
  • Maekawa S.
  • Miller L.
  • Shen Z.
  • Tohyama T.
  • Tsutsui K.

The electronic structure of Mott insulators continues to be a major unsolved problem in physics despite more than half-century of intense research efforts. The unexpected discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in doped Mott insulators is a highlight of this intellectual crisis. Well-developed momentum-resolved spectroscopies such as photoemission and neutron scattering cannot ...

Users, Programmers, and Statistical Software

  • Chambers J.

Statistical software provides essential support for statisticians and others who are analyzing data or doing research on new statistical techniques. Those supported typically regard themselves as "users" of the software, but as soon as they need to express their own ideas computationally, they in fact become "programmers". Nothing is more ...

Characterization of a Microfocused Circularly Polarized X-ray Probe

  • Isaacs E.
  • Lang J.
  • Maser J.
  • Nelson C.
  • Pollmann J.
  • Srajer G.
  • Venkataraman C.

We report on the development of a circularly polarized x-ray microprobe in the intermediate energy range from 5 to 10 keV. In this experiment linearly polarized synchrotron radiation was circularly polarized by means of a Bragg-diffracting diamond phase retarder and subsequently focused down to a spot size of about 4 ...

Ultra-Dense Terabit Capacity WDM Transmission in L-Band

  • Centanni J.
  • Kantor K.
  • Radic S.
  • Srivastava A.
  • Sulhoff J.
  • Sun Y.
  • Wolf C.

We report error-free transmission of 100 wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) 10 Gb/s channels with 25 GHz spacing over 400km of non-zero dispersion shifted fiber. High spectral efficiency of 0.4b/s/Hz was achieved combining distributed Raman and erbium doped fiber amplifiers.

Quasiparticle Spectrum of d-wave Superconductors in the Mixed State

  • Halperin B.
  • Marinelli L.
  • Simon S.

The quasiparticle spectrum of a two-dimensional d-wave superconductor in the mixed state, H sub (c1) << H<<H sub (c2) , is studied both analytically and numerically using the linearized Bogoliubov-deGennes equation. We consider various values of the "anisotropy ratio" upsilon sub F / upsilon sub DELTA for the quasiparticle velocities ...

Diagnostics of Inductively Coupled Chlorine Plasmas: Measurement of Cl sub 2 sup + and Cl sup + Densities

  • Bogart K.
  • Donnelly V.
  • Fuller N.
  • Herman I.
  • Malyshev M.

The absolute densities of the positive ions (Cl sub 2 sup + and Cl sup +) are obtained over a 2-20 mTorr pressure range and 5-1000 W input (radio frequency) rf power range in a transformer coupled Cl sub 2 plasma. The relative number density of Cl sub 2 sup ...

On the Mechanism of Plasma Enhanced Dielectric Deposition Charging Damage

  • Cheung K.

The photoconduction is shown to be the mechanism for plasma charging damage during plasma enhanced dielectric deposition. Details of the conduction process, including polarity effect are explained. The recently measured oxide photoconductivity is shown to be in agreement with expectation. The main cause of severe charging damage is the low ...

Plasma Charging Damage of Ultra-Thin Gate-Oxide -- The Measurement Dilemma

  • Cheung K.
  • Hwang D.
  • Mason P.

We examined the problem of detecting plasma charging damage in deep submicron technology where the gate-oxide is ultra-thin. From the viewpoint of damage impacting gate-oxide reliability, we show that the current available method is incapable to provide sufficient sensitivity.