February 01, 2020

A Channel Model for Indoor Time-of-Arrival Ranging

  • Huang H.
  • Latinovic Z.

We executed an indoor measurement campaign to statistically characterize the bias in time of arrival (ToA) estimates incurred by multipath in the 5.5 GHz industrial, scientific and medical band by transmitting 10 and 100 MHz bandwidth waveforms. Measurements in three buildings with different propagation conditions are performed to analyze ToA statistics in a wide range of indoor environments, from partitioned offices to an open cafeteria area. We demonstrate that WINNER II and similar channel models designed for communications are not suitable for localization applications as they do not provide absolute delays. Furthermore, such models assume constant root mean square delay spread over distance, which is a significant contributor to the ToA errors for lower signal bandwidths. Other physical aspects such as specular components in line-of-sight (LOS) and random bias in non-LOS scenario are also not considered in those channel models. An extension of the WINNER II model that overcomes those flaws and provides more realistic ranging performance is proposed. We validate the extended model by demonstrating a good match between the statistics of its simulated output and our measurements.

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