April 23, 2019

Silver Tarnishing Mechanism Revealed by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

  • Saleh G.
  • Sanvito S.
  • Xu C.

KGaA, Weinheim The mechanism of silver?oxygen and silver?sulfur reactions is revealed by means of molecular dynamics simulations, performed with reactive force fields purposely built and extensively tested against quantum-chemical results. Different reaction mechanisms and rates for Ag?O and Ag?S emerge. This study solves the long-lasting question why silver exposed to the environment is strongly vulnerable to sulfur corrosion (tarnishing) but hardly reacts with O 2 , despite the thermodynamic prediction that both oxide and sulfide should form. The reliability of the simulation results is confirmed by the agreement with a multitude of experimental results from the literature.

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May 01, 2020

A Packaged 0.01-26-GHz Single-Chip SiGe Reflectometer for Two-Port Vector Network Analyzers

  • Chung H.
  • Ma Q.
  • Rebeiz G.
  • Sayginer M.

© 1963-2012 IEEE. This article presents a packaged SiGe BiCMOS reflectometer for 0.01-26-GHz two-port vector network analyzers (VNAs). The reflectometer chip is composed of a resistive bridge coupler and two wideband heterodyne receivers for coherent magnitude and phase detection. In addition, a high-linearity receiver channel is designed to accommodate 20 ...

August 01, 2019

Protecting photonic quantum states using topology

  • Blanco-Redondo A.

The use of topology to protect quantum information is well-known to the condensed-matter community and, indeed, topological quantum computing is a bursting field of research and one of the competing avenues to demonstrate that quantum computers can complete certain problems that classical computers cannot. In photonics, however, we are only ...

May 01, 2019

Digital networks at the nexus of productivity growth

  • Kamat S.
  • Prakash S.
  • Saniee I.
  • Weldon M.

This paper takes a fresh look at the debate over the relationship between digital technology and productivity. The argument of economic historian Robert J. Gordon is that digital technology will not lead to increases in productivity such as we saw in the last century, based on his analysis of the ...