Technologies driving 5G standards (duplicate)

Pioneering fundamental technologies of 5G.


Nokia Bell Labs pioneered many of the fundamental technology innovations that are being adopted into 5G standards.

Nokia has played a key role in driving the first set of globally interoperable 5G standards to completion with 3GPP Release 15. We continue to realize our holistic 5G vision within Releases 16 and 17, including the network features to enable true industrial automation.

Enabling Release 15 initial deployments


Low density parity check

Nokia Bell Labs' crucial inventions made low-density parity check (LDPC) coding reliable and practical for real-world communications. It is an essential component for efficient and reliable transmission of feasible multi-gigabit per second handsets and gNBs.


5G radio stack design

The pioneering 5G numerology for simplified LTE + 5G implementation that was invented at Nokia Bell Labs and the MAC layer solutions for efficient high-rate handset protocols form the basis for new 5G radio designs and quick rollouts.


Massive MIMO

Nokia Bell Labs pioneered MIMO in 1995 and extended the concept with multi-user MIMO and massive MIMO through its adoption in 5G standards. Massive MIMO is essential for initial Release 15 5G deployments.


Common data layer and stateless net functions

The common data layer supporting 5G stateless network functions is a key enabler for unlimited scalability and resilience in the core, and is an open ecosystem for data exposure and analytics. Another first from Nokia Bell Labs.


Mobile edge computing

Nokia Bell Labs led the development of mobile edge computing (MEC) within ETSI and introduced MEC to 5G. This led to a key architecture paradigm shift for end-to-end low-latency services and private networks for new verticals.


Access-agnostic core

Nokia Bell Labs is a leading contributor to design and definition of an access-agnostic 5G core, providing a universal network solution serving different radio and fixed access technologies. We also championed 5G AKA authentication, an essential ingredient in an efficient and secure 5G.



Nokia Bell Labs is a technology pioneer and industry leader in mmWave for high-capacity wireless access and has invented essential enablers for cost-effective deployment.

Inventions for Release 16


5G unlicensed spectrum

Nokia championed enhancements enabling 5G New Radio (NR) in unlicensed spectrum bands, increasing capacity for both service providers and private networks, and enabling operation of standalone networks.


Private networks

Expanding the capabilities of the core for users in enterprise, industrial and other non-public segments.


Industrial IoT

IIoT is a Release 16 5G enabler for digital transformation of industrial verticals providing innovations for time-critical operations over the 5G network, which are vital for manufacturing automation and many other vertical uses.

Release 17 enablers



NR-Light address new use cases with IoT-type requirements for both industrial and consumer applications that cannot be satisfied by eMTC or NB-IoT.


Enhanced industrial IoT

Nokia is leading the evolution of wide-area time-synchronous communications beyond IEEE's industrial Ethernet solutions, providing native 5G support.


Automation for diverse networks

Inspired by its Future X network E2E vision, Nokia continues to drive work in network slicing enhancement, network automation and edge computing.