Electrical Simulation of the Scanning Capacitance Microscopy Imaging of the PN Junction with Semiconductor Probe Tips

  • Garno J.
  • Kleiman R.
  • Moccio S.
  • O'Malley M.
  • Timp G.
  • Timp W.

Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has enabled the imaging of two-dimensional doping profiles of very small transistors. Initial SCM imaging was performed using metal-coated probe tips with a diameter of 30-50nm. The limited resolution achievable with these tips due to their size prompted us to investigate micro-machined silicon cantilever tips with ...

A Note on the Augmented Hessian When the Reduced Hessian is Semidefinite

  • Anstreicher K.
  • Wright M.

Certain matrix relationships play an important role in optimality conditions and algorithms for nonlinear and semidefinite programming. Let H be an n x n symmetric matrix, A an m x n matrix, and Z a basis for the null space of A. (In the context of optimization, H is the ...

Scalable Feedback for Large Groups

  • Biersack E.
  • Nonnenmacher J.

We investigate the scalability of feedback in multicast communication and propose a new method of probalistic feedback based on exponentially distributed timers. By analysis and simulation for up to 10 sup 6 receivers, we show that feedback implosion is avoided while feedback latency is low. The mechanism is robust against ...

Gaussian-3 Theory Using Density Functional Geometries and Zero-Point Energies

  • Baboul A.
  • Curtiss L.
  • Raghavachari K.
  • Redfern P.

In a previous paper, we described a general procedure referred to as Gaussian-3 (G3) theory for the quantum chemical computation of total energies of molecules at their equilibrium geometries. The G3 method has been assessed on a total of 299 energies (enthalpies of formation, ionization energies, electron affinities, and proton ...

Evidence of Substrate Enhanced High Energy Tails in the Distribution Function of Deep Submicron MOSFETs by Light Emission Measurements

  • Bude J.
  • Manfredi M.
  • Mastrapasqua M.
  • Pavesi M.
  • Sangiorgi E.
  • Selmi L.

This paper reports direct experimental evidence that the high energy tail of the hot carrier luminescence distribution of deep submicron silicon MOSFETs is essentially modified by the application of a substrate voltage. The bias and temperature dependence of the phenomenon are consistent with an enhancement of the high energy tail ...

On Complexity Reduction of Trellis-Based Scalar-Vector Quantizers by Signaling of Regions

  • Lee C.

This memo presents a method to reduce the complexity of trellis-based scalar-vector quantizers (TB-SVQ). Based on Calderbank and Ozarow's classical idea, the reproduction alphabet is partitioned into equal area regions and the codebook is shaped subject to a rate-reduced signaling (selection of sequences) of these regions. As the shaping bit ...

Document Image Layout Comparison and Classification

  • Hu J.
  • Kashi R.
  • Wilfong G.

This paper describes methods for document image comparison and classification at the spatial layout level. The goal is to develop fast algorithms for initial document type classification without OCR, which can then be verified using more elaborate methods based on more detailed geometric and syntactic models. This is based on ...

Amplitude Equations from Spatiotemporal Binary-Fluid Convection Data

  • Abel M.
  • Kolodner P.
  • Kurths J.
  • Voss H.

We apply a recently-developed method for the analysis of spatiotemporal data to extract the dynamical equations that describe an experiment on traveling-wave convection in a binary fluid. The technique is based on nonlinear regression analysis and allows the nonparametric estimation of the functions involved in these equations. We find that ...

Wavelength Independent Optical Lithography

  • Cirelli R.
  • Frackoviak J.
  • Klemens F.
  • Nalamasu O.
  • Pau S.
  • Timko A.
  • Timp G.
  • Watson G.

We propose and demonstrate a multiple exposure lithographic technique that is wavelength independent. We implement this technique using binary masks and conventional illumination at lambda sub e = 248 nm and show that various type of patterns of dimension up to lambda sub e /10 can be printed.

Feature-Evolution During Plasma Etching: II. Polycrystalline Silicon Etching

  • Bogart K.
  • Klemens F.
  • Lane J.
  • Lee J.
  • Malyshev M.

The effect of source power, bias power, chamber pressure, flow rate, and feed gas composition on profile evolution during polycrystalline silicon etching with an oxide hardmask has been studied in a transformer-coupled plasma system. The large resultant data set provides a comprehensive look at feature evolution as plasma parameters are ...

In sub (0.5) (Al sub x Ga sub (1-x)) sub (0.5) P HEMT's for High-Efficiency Low-Voltage Power Amplifiers: Design, Fabrication and Device Results

  • Chen Y.
  • Kuo H.
  • Kuo J.
  • Lin C.
  • Lothian J.
  • Mayo W.
  • Ren F.
  • Tsai H.
  • Wang Y.
  • Weiner J.

In sub (0.5) (Al sub x Ga sub (1-x) sub (0.5) P HEMT's are expected to have higher two-dimensional electron gas density and larger current drive capability than both Al sub (0.23) Ga sub (0.77) As and In sub (0.5) Ga sub (0.5) P HEMT's due to the improved conduction ...

A Study of Magnetic and Electrical Crossover Region of La sub (0.5+-delta) Ca sub (0.5+-delta) Mn0 sub 3

  • Mitchell J.
  • Ramirez A.
  • Roy M.
  • Schiffer P.

The ground states of La sub (i-x) Ca sub x Mn0 sub 3 change from a double exchange associated conducting ferromagnet at (x<0.50) to a charge ordered antiferromagnet at (x>0.50) even when x is varied only slightly around 0.50. We have performed a careful study of the electrical and magnetic ...

Eigenvalue-Based Characterization and Test for Positive Realness of Scalar Transfer Functions

  • Bai Z.
  • Freund R.

An eigenvalue-based characterization of positive realness of transfer functions of single-input single-output time-invariant linear systems is derived. Based on this characterization, we propose efficient computational procedures to determine if a given transfer function is positive real. The input for these eigenvalue-based tests is any given, not necessarily minimal, state-space representation ...

A New Upper Bound on the Reliability Function of the Gaussian Channel

  • Ashikhmin A.
  • Barg A.
  • Litsyn S.

We derive a new upper bound on the exponent of error probability for the best possible codes in the Gaussian channel. This bound is tighter than the known upper bounds (the sphere-packing and minimum-distance bounds proved in Shannon's classical 1959 paper and their low-rate improvement by Kabatiansky and Levenshtein). The ...

Matching and Retrieval Based on the Vocabulary and Grammar of Color Patterns

  • Ganapathy S.
  • Hu J.
  • Kovacevic J.
  • Mojsilovic A.
  • Sefranek R.

We propose a perceptually-based system for pattern retrieval and matching. There is a need for such an "intelligent" retrieval system in applications such as digital museums and libraries, design, architecture and digital stock photography. The central idea of the work is that similarity judgement has to be modeled along perceptual ...

Boron-Enhanced Diffusion of Boron: Physical Mechanisms

  • Agarwal A.
  • Eaglesham D.
  • Gossmann H.

Silicon layers containing B in excess of a few atomic percent create a supersaturation of Si self-interstitials in the underlying Si, resulting in enhanced diffusion of B in the substrate (boron-enhanced diffusion, BED). The temperature- and time-dependence of BED is investigated here. Evaporated-boron as well as ultra-low energy 0.5-keV B-implanted ...

Low-Field Magnetostriction in an Annealed Co-30% Fe Alloy

  • Chen L.
  • Jin S.
  • Klemmer T.
  • Mavoori H.

Magnetostriction properties of a deformed and annealed Co-Fe alloy have been investigated. A significant magnetostriction value greater than ~110x10 sup (-6) was obtained in a cold-rolled and recrystallized sample at a practical, low field of ~ 100 Oe, while the as-cold-rolled sample gave a small magnetostriction of only ~15x10 sup ...

Mechanism for the Reduction of Interstitial Supersaturations in MeV-Implanted Silicon

  • Agarwal A.
  • Eaglesham D.
  • Gossmann H.
  • Haynes T.
  • Jacobson D.
  • Pelaz L.
  • Venezia V.

We demonstrate that the excess vacancies induced by a 1-MeV Si implant reduce the excess interstitials generated by a 40-keV Si implant during thermal annealing when these two implants are superimposed in silicon. The experiment presented in this work demonstrates that this previously observed reduction is dominated by vacancy annihilation ...

Growth of Single Crystals of ZrW sub 2 O sub 8

  • Kowach G.

The compound, ZrW sub 2 O sub 8, exhibits an unusual negative coefficient of thermal expansion of approximately -10 ppm/C over ambient temperatures. The incongruent melting point and narrow thermal stability limits of ZrW sub 2 O sub 8 from 1105 to 1257C severely restrict crystal growth conditions. However, single ...

Low-Stress W/Cr Films for SCALPEL(R) Mask Scattering Layers

  • Windt D.

I describe the development of low-stress W/Cr bilayer films for use as SCALPEL(R) mask scattering layers. These films are produced by DC magnetron sputtering in argon, and consist of 25 to 50-nm-thick W layers deposited onto 5 to 10-nm-thick Cr layers. X-ray reflectance analysis is used to measure the thicknesses ...