Minimum Error Rate Training for PHMM-Based Text Recognition

  • Kuo S.
  • Yen C.

In this paper, discriminative training is studied to improve the performance of our Pseudo 2D Hidden Markov Models (PHMM)- based text recognition. In the traditional approach of model estimation, maximum likehood (ML) is usually used as the optimization criterion. Due to the lack of the correct information about the parametric ...

Wireless and Personal Communications Systems (Book)

  • Garg V.
  • Wilkes J.

Over the last decade, deployment of wireless communications in North America and Europe has been phenomenal. Wireless communications technology has evolved along a logical path, from simple first generation analog products designed for business use, to second generation digital wireless telecommunications systems for residential and business environments. As the industry ...

R++: Adding Path-Based Rules to C++

  • Crawford J.
  • Dvorak D.
  • Litman D.
  • Mishra A.
  • Patel-Schneider P.

Object-oriented languages and rule-based languages offer two distinct and useful programming abstractions, yet the two have never been harmoniously integrated in a mainstream language. R++ was developed as a synthesis of these two paradigms that adds path-based rules as a new kind of class member that is subservient to the ...

Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes for Dense Instances of NP-Hard Problems

  • Arora S.
  • Karger D.
  • Karpinski M.

We present a univied framework for designing Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes (PTASs) for "dense" instances of many NP- hard optimization problems, including graph maximum cut, graph bisection, all MAX-SNP problems (including MAX-3SAT), and minimum k-way cut with and without specified sources. Dense graphs for us are graphs with minimum degree ...

A Randomized Fully Polynomial Time Approximation Scheme for the All Terminal Network Reliability Problem

  • Karger D.

The classic all-terminal network reliability problem posits a graph, each of whose edges fails independently with some given probability. The goal is to determine the probability that the network becomes disconnected due to edge failures. This problem has obvious applications in the design of communication networks. Since it is #P-complete, ...

Winning The Quality Race: Applying Quality Principles In Product Development (BOOK)

  • Hiatt J.
  • Trimble D.
  • Wesner J.

WELCOME ABOARD! This is your guidebook for a journey toward productivity improvement in a product development environment. It is based upon our own quest, in support of our product development work at AT&T Bell Laboratories, to shorten development intervals and improve product quality, while at the same time lowering costs. ...

Firewalls and Internet Security - Repelling the Wily Hacker (Book)

  • Bellovin S.
  • Cheswick W.

Security is, in general, a tradeoff with convenience, and most people are not willing to forgo the convenience of remote access to their computers. Inevitably, they suffer from some loss of security. It is our purpose here to discuss how to minimize the extent of that loss. The situation is ...

The Design and Evolution of C++

  • Stroustrup B.

The ACM HOPL2 conference on the history of Programming Languages asked me to write a paper on the history of C++. This seemed a reasonable idea and a bit of an honor so I started writing. To get a more comprehensive and balanced view of C++'s growth I asked a ...

Determination of the Si/Si sub 1-x Ge sub x Interfacial Roughness on the Atomic Level by Quantitem.

  • Bean J.
  • Kisielowski C.
  • Ourmazd A.
  • Schwander P.

Quantitem is a new electron microscopic approach capable of mapping the composition with near-atomic resolution and sensitivity in general crystalline systems. Unlike chemical mapping [1], it does not require the presence of chemical reflections, and can this be used to examine general chemical changes in crystals along any (zone-axis) orientation.

Compiler Assisted Distributed Memory Parallelization of an Iterative Solver for Irregular Sparse Linear Systems

  • Pommerell C.
  • Ruhl R.

Distributed memory parallel processors (DMPPs) can deliver high peak performance comparable or higher than vector supercomputers while promising a better cost- performance ratio. Programming, however, is significantly harder than on traditional vector systems, especially when problems necessitating irregularly structured solution methods are considered. A class of such applications, with large ...

Development Process Architecture

  • Coplien J.
  • Weiss D.

A framework for process architecture can provide a basis for common dialogue and progress in understanding and improving software production. Process architecture is defined as the pattern of relationships among its elements. An architecture must be viewed in at least four contexts. The context of perspective can be exemplified by ...

Designing for Data Sharing

  • Ellis P.

While the expression "data sharing" has been a popular topic in information system literature for several years. it is much more honored in print than in practice. Business processes which have evolved independently often view the same data in very different ways. This paper discusses strategies for designing a relational ...

Basic EMC Measurement Sites and Associated Errors

  • Heirman D.

This seminar will cover the practical aspects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression and control in electronic systems. Both analogue and digital circuits are covered. It is intended for technicians, engineers, managers and others who need a working knowledge of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The commercial and industrial aspects of EMC will ...

The Relationship of IEEE EMC Standards with Other National and International Specifications

  • Heirman D.

With the proliferation of high-speed computers and microprocessor- controlled commercial products with associated fast rise time clocks used next to sensitive electronics, all immersed in a typical RF environment punctuated by TV and broadcast transmitters, the need for designing electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into commercial products has intensified. Since most products ...

Asymptotic Enumeration Methods

  • Odlyzko A.

Asymptotic enumerations methods provide quantitative information about the rate of growth of functions that count combinatorial objects. Typical questions that these methods answer are: (1) How does the number of partitions of a set of n elements grow with n? (2) How does this number compare to the number of ...

On the Construction of Index Data Structures for Matrices: A lower bound.

  • Giancarlo R.

We introduce the notion and investigate the complexity of an abstract index data structure for an n xw matrix TEXT, which has entries defined over an alphabet E. Such index is a tree data structure that represents all submatrices of the given matrix and that can be sued to answer ...

An Interior-Point Method for Multi-fractional Programs with Convex Constraints.

  • Florian Jarre
  • Freund R.

We present an interior-point method for a family of multi-fractional programs with convex constraints. The programs under consideration consist of minimizing the maximum of a finite number of linear fractions over some convex set. First, we present a simple "short-step" algorithm for solving such multi-fractional programs. Then, we describe a ...

Existence of Two-dimensional Integrable Functions having Prescribed Projections in Several Directions.

  • Logan B.

It is shown that the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a function belonging to L sub 1 (R sup 2) having prescribed projections in a finite number of different directions is that the prescribed projections belong to L sub 1 (R sup 1) and have equal total ...

Benign Failure Models for Shared Memory

  • Afek Y.
  • Merritt M.
  • Taubenfeld G.

This paper introduces two benign failure models for shared memory in distributed systems, crash-omission and crash-eventual. These models are of intermediate power between the crash and omission models of [JCT92]. Unlike the crash model, crash-omission is shown to have universal, gracefully-degrading constructions.

SEMATECH - An Overview of the United States Semiconductor R&D Consortium

  • Knight S.

The US Semiconductor industry has continued to lose market share over the past decade, and is now second n size to that of Japan. SEMATECH was created to help stem this loss of market by providing an arena for precompetitive research and development on a joint basis for the fourteen ...