Direct Structure Determination of Systems with Two Dimensional Periodicity

  • Berman L.
  • Clarke R.
  • Macharrie B.
  • Pfeiffer L.
  • Pindak R.
  • Yacoby Y.

We demonstrate a new general x-ray method for the direct determination of the structure of materials which are periodic in the two dimensions and aperiodic in the third (2D crystals), encompassing many systems of scientific and technological interest. The structure is obtained from the amplitude and phase of the complex ...

Communication Through a Diffusive Medium: Coherence and Capacity

  • Balents L.
  • Baranger H.
  • Moustakas A.
  • Sengupta A.
  • Simon S.

Coherent wave propagation in disordered media gives rise to many fascinating phenomena in areas as diverse as conduction of electrons through nanostructures and light scattering from granular material. It is the interference of waves coming from many different directions that produces new effects - universal conductance fluctuations in the case ...

Embedded Organic Low-kappa Structures for sub-0.18 micron CMOS VLSI MLM: Integration and Etching Issues

  • Adebanjo R.
  • Baker M.
  • Case C.
  • Liu R.
  • Maynard H.
  • Pai C.
  • Tai W.

Interconnect delay is quickly becoming a significant factor limiting the clock-speed for advanced devices. To introduce low-kappa dielectrics without the complications introduced by Cu damascene processing requires that the low-kappa materials have excellent gap-fill capabilities to be compatible with Al metallization. In this paper, we describe how to create an ...

Pulse-Overlapped Dispersion-Managed Data Transmission and Intra-Channel Four-Wave Mixing

  • Mamyshev P.
  • Mamysheva N.

We show that strong overlap of adjacent pulses in dispersion-managed RZ transmission reduces pulse-to-pulse interaction and the timing jitter. The limiting factor for this "pulse-overlapped" transmission is the amplitude fluctuations induced by four-wave mixing between spectral components within a single channel.

Mechanistic Studies of Silicon Oxidation

  • Chabal Y.
  • Queeney K.
  • Raghavachari K.
  • Stefanov B.
  • Weldon M.

The microscopic mechanism of formation of ultrathin oxides on Si(100) has been investigated using a combination of infrared spectroscopy and ab initio quantum chemical cluster calculations. The 0->2 monolayer oxide films are grown sequentially from the "bottom-up" using repeated water exposures and annealing cycles, with the partial pressure of water ...

High Power Laser Light Source for Near Field Optics and its Application to High Density Optical Data Storage

  • Baldwin K.
  • Brown D.
  • Chichester R.
  • Dhar L.
  • Hobson W.
  • Hopkins L.
  • Lopata J.
  • Murray C.
  • Partovi A.
  • Peale D.
  • Thear E.
  • Wuttig M.
  • Wynn J.
  • Yeh J.
  • Zydzik G.

A novel high power laser light source with an output power exceeding 1mW (10 sup 4 times the power from previous sources) and small (300 nm to less than 50 nm diameter) output beam size for high-resolution near-field optics applications is demonstrated. The near-field laser (NFL) tremendously expands the range ...

Long Period Hydromagnetic Waves at Very High Geomagnetic Latitudes

  • Fukunishi H.
  • Lanzerotti L.
  • Maclennan C.
  • Shono A.

Low frequency (~5 mHz) geomagnetic fluctuations are investigated at Antarctic ground-based locations ranging from ~71 degrees to ~80 degrees geomagnetic latitude, and in the northern conjugate region. We show that a narrow band spectral feature at about this frequency often appears in the data, especially at the lower latitudes. We ...

A 2-1600 MHz CMOS Clock Recovery PLL with Low-Vdd Capability

  • Larsson P.

A general-purpose phase-locked loop with programmable bit rates is presented demonstrating that large frequency tuning range, large power supply range, and low jitter can be achieved simultaneously. The clock recovery architecture uses phase selection for automatic initial frequency capture. The large period jitter of conventional phase selection is eliminated through ...

Relationship between Plasma Damage, SILC and Gate-Oxide Reliability

  • Chang C.
  • Cheung K.
  • Ciampa N.
  • Clemens J.
  • Colonell J.
  • Lai W.
  • Liu C.
  • Liu R.
  • Lu Q.
  • Miner J.
  • Pai C.
  • Vaidya H.

The "doom's day curve" from IBM is revisited. The early part of the SILC growth curve is shown to be where the trap generation rate is extracted for scaling limit calculation. The very same part of the curve is also shown to be dominated by latent defects caused by plasma-charging ...

Design of Efficient Erasure Codes with Differential Evolution

  • Shokrollahi M.
  • Storn R.

The design of practical and powerful codes for protection against erasures in digital communication can be reduced to optimizing solutions of a highly nonlinear constraint satisfaction problem [LMS+97]. In this paper, we will attack this problem using the Differential Evolution approach [PS97] and significantly improve results previously obtained using classical ...

Structures of Chiral Smectic-C Mesophases Revealed by Polarization-Analyzed Resonant X-Ray Scattering

  • Baltes H.
  • Barois P.
  • Furenlid L.
  • Goodby J.
  • Hird M.
  • Huang C.
  • Levelut A.
  • Mach P.
  • Nguyen H.
  • Pindak R.
  • Seed A.

We report polarization-analyzed, resonant x-ray diffraction at the sulfer K edge performed upon freestanding liquid-crystal films. Our studies of the thiobenzoate enantiomer 100TBBB1M7 yield the polarization states of resonant satellite peaks arising from characteristic superlattices in SmC sub A*, SmC sub (FI1)*, SmC sub (FI2)*, and SmC sub (alpha) phases. ...

Ising Pyrochlore Magnets: Low Temperature Properties, Ice Rules and Beyond

  • Cava R.
  • Hayashi A.
  • Ramirez A.
  • Rosenkranz S.
  • Shastry B.
  • Siddharthan R.

Pyrochlore magnets are candidates for spin-ice behavior. We present theoretical simulations of relevance for the pyrochlore family R sub 2 Ti sub 2 O sub 7 (R=rare earth) supported by magnetothermal measurements on selected systems. By considering long ranged dipole-dipole as well as short-ranged superexchange interactions we get three distinct ...

Synchrotron X-ray Study of the q-fold quasicrystalline symmetry of the Smectic C Twist Grain Boundary phase (TGB sub c)

  • Barois P.
  • Heidelbach F.
  • Navailles L.
  • Nguyen H.
  • Nobili M.
  • Petit M.
  • Pindak R.
  • Riekel C.

We report the first X-ray investigation of spatial variations of the q-fold quasicrystalline symmetry (so-called commensurability) of well-aligned TGB sub c samples. A spatial resolution of 20x40 micron sup 2 was achieved using the ESRF microfocus beamline. The liquid crystal samples, contained between glass plates which were either parallel or ...

High Density, High Performance Optical Data Storage via Volume Holography: Viability at Last?

  • Boyd C.
  • Campbell S.
  • Curtis K.
  • Dhar L.
  • Hale A.
  • Harris A.
  • Hill A.
  • Katz H.
  • Schilling M.
  • Schnoes M.
  • Tackitt M.
  • Wilson W.

The long held promise of using volume holography to deliver high performance optical storage is reviewed. The problems, which limited the development for many years, are assessed. Finally, we describe a series of innovations, which may make the technology viable at last. The manuscript results from an invited paper presented ...

Cross-Domain Approximate String Matching

  • Lopresti D.
  • Wilfong G.

Approximate string matching is an important paradigm in domains ranging from speech recognition to information retrieval and molecular biology. In this paper, we introduce a new formalism for a class of applications that takes two strings as input, each specified in terms of a particular domain, and performs a comparison ...

A New Structural Model for Si/SiO sub 2 Interfaces Derived from Spherosiloxane Clusters: Implications for Si 2p Photoemission Spectroscopy

  • Eng J.
  • Raghavachari K.

Si 2p photoemission is perhaps the most widely used technique for studying the structure of the Si/SiO sub 2 interface. Traditionally, these spectra have been interpreted based on the formal oxidation state model, where the binding energy of the Si 2p core level increases nearly linearly with the number of ...

J-Ramp on sub-3nm Dielectrics: Noise as a Breakdown Criterion

  • Alers G.
  • Frei M.
  • Monroe D.
  • Weir B.

An alternate criterion of failure for very thin oxides is proposed that can reliably detect the occurrence of both soft breakdown and hard breakdown during accelerated stress tests. We show that an increase in current noise that occurs at oxide breakdown can be detected rapidly with commercial test equipment even ...

Evidence from Spectral Emissometry for Conduction Intraband Transitions in the Intrinsic Regime for Silicon

  • Abedrabbo S.
  • Fiory A.
  • Hensel J.
  • Ravindra N.

From emissometry measurements in lightly doped Si at elevated temperatures we have observed an anomalous absorption band in the wavelength range of 1-5 microns. The wavelength at which the band peak, lambda ~~ 2.3 micron, shows a negligible dependence on temperature while the peak intensity increases with temperature presumably as ...

B Cluster Formation and Dissolution in Si: A Scenario Based on Atomistic Modeling

  • Barbolla J.
  • Gilmer G.
  • Gossmann H.
  • Jaraiz M.
  • Pelaz L.
  • Rafferty C.

A comprehensive model of the nucleation, growth and dissolution of B clusters in Si is presented. We analyze the activation of B in implanted Si on the basis of detailed interactions between B and defects in Si. In the model, the nucleation of B clusters requires a high interstitial supersaturation, ...

Class-Based Buffer Management using Early Fair Drop

  • Bruno J.
  • Mandhana T.
  • Ozden B.
  • Silberschatz A.

Previously, we introduced a new buffer management policy called Early Fair Drop (EFD) to be used in conjunction with per-flow queuing and link scheduling, and experimentally showed that EFD outperforms other known drop policies. The superior performance of EFD is due to its "early signaling" mechanism calculating when to drop ...