Generalized Model Checking: Reasoning about Partial State Spaces

  • Bruns G.
  • Godefroid P.

We discuss the problem of model checking temporal properties on partial Kripke structures, which were introduced in [BG99] for representing incomplete state spaces. We first extend the results of [BG99] by showing that the model-checking problem for any 3-valued temporal logic can be reduced to two model-checking problems fro the ...

Mesoscopic Physics of Granular Flows

  • Tkachenko A.
  • V. Putkaradze

We present a description of granular dynamics based on the idea of differentiation between fluid and solid components. First, we construct a model of completely fluidized phase. Then we discuss a shear surface motion on the boundary of the bulk solid phase, induced by a moving wall. Our results include ...

Memory Effects in Granular Material

  • C. Josserand
  • D. Mueth
  • H. Jaeger
  • Tkachenko A.

We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of memory effects in vibration-induced compaction of granular materials. In particular, the response of the system to an abrupt change in shaking intensity is measured. At short times after the perturbation, a granular analog of aging in glasses is observed. Using a ...

Stress in Frictionless Granular Material: Adaptive Network Simulation

  • T. Witten
  • Tkachenko A.

We present a minimalistic approach to simulation of force transmission through granular systems. We start from a configuration containing cohesive (tensile contact forces and use an adaptive procedure to find the stable configuration with no tensile contact forces. The procedure works by sequentially removing and adding individual contacts between adjacent ...

Integrated System Interoperability Testing with Applications to VoIP

  • Griffeth N.
  • Hao R.
  • Lee D.
  • Sinha R.

This work has been motivated by the need to test interoperability of systems carrying voice calls over the IP network. Voice over IP (VoIP) systems must be integrated and interoperate with the existing Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) before they will be widely adopted. Standards have been developed by address ...

Plasma charging damage of ultra-thin gate-oxide-the measurement dilemma

  • Cheung K.

The impact of plasma charging damage on ultra-thin gate-oxide is discussed. The argument for plasma charging damage becoming less important is examined. Without considering the area and failure rate scaling effect, one mode of charging damage does become less important while other modes continue to be a serious problem. After ...

Hierarchical Interference Noise Analysis in Large VLSI Circuits though Reduced-Order Modeling of Noise Power Spectral Density Functions

  • Demir A.
  • Feldmann P.

The paper introduces a methodology and efficient computational techniques for the evaluation of the interference noise, caused by digital switching activity, in sensitive circuits of a mixed-digital-analog chip. The digital switching activity is modeled stochastically as functions defined on Markov chains. The actual interference signal is obtained through the modulation ...

Optimal Coarse Quantization of Finite-Length Signals Using Integer, Programming

  • Demir A.
  • Feldmann P.

This paper introduces a novel, discrete optimization based method for the computation of coarsely quantized, oversampled finite-length digital signals. The method, while only suitable for off-line computation, is more general than the established sigma-delta encoding technique, due to its capacity to take into account complex specifications and design trade-offs. Signal ...

Program Verification

  • Kurshan R.

This article describes a method for checking the correctness of certain types of computer programs. The method is used commercially in the development of programs implemented as integrated circuits, and is applicable to the development of "control-intensive" software programs as well. "Divide-and-conquer" techniques central to this method apply to a ...

Effects of Iterative Detection and Decoding on the Performance of BLAST

  • Foschini G.
  • Huang H.
  • Li X.
  • Valenzuela R.

In BLAST (Bell Labs's Layered Space Time) systems, very high spectral efficiency are achieved by employing antenna arrays at both transmit and receive sides. Coding for these array systems is an interesting topic, and as such, has seen intensive research recently. In this paper, we study coding architectures constructed from ...

Unifying the Thermal-Chemical (TC) and Anode-Hole-Injection (AH) Gate-Oxide Breakdown Models

  • Cheung K.

Recent experimental data obtained from medium thickness, high-quality thermal-oxide clearly indicates that the logarithmic oxide lifetime is linearly proportional to the oxide field in the mid-to-low field range. This strong support for the E model lends credibility to the Thermal-Chemical (TC) model proposed by McPherson et al. In this work, ...

Error Exponents for the Correlated Nakagami Fading Channel with Maximal -Ratio Combining

  • Ahmed W.
  • Mclane P.
  • Win M.
  • Winters J.

In this paper, we derive the random coding error exponent, or reliability function, for flat Nakagami fading channels with receiver antenna diversity. We consider maximal ratio combining (MRC) with an arbitrary number of diversity branches in correlated Nakagami fading channels, where the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's) of the diversity branches ...

Transient Plasma-Induced Emission Analysis of Laser-Desorbed Species During Cl sub 2 Plasma Etching of Si

  • Choe J.
  • Donnelly V.
  • Fuller N.
  • Herman I.

The surface during the etching of Si in a Cl sub 2 inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) was analyzed by laser desorption (LD), followed by detection of the desorbed species by monitoring the transient changes by plasma- induced emission (PIE). Optical emission from Si, SiCl, SiCl sub 2 and possibly Si sub ...

Diagnostics of Inductively Coupled Chlorine Plasmas: Measurement of the Neutral Gas Temperature

  • Donnelly V.
  • Malyshev M.

We report measurements of the bulk, neutral gas temperature in a chlorine transformer-coupled plasma (TCP). A trace amount (2-5%) of N sub 2 was added to the discharge and the rotational temperature of the C sup 3 pi sub u state was determined from the C sup 3 pi sub ...

Tunable Dispersion Compensatin in a 160 Gb/s TDM System by a Voltage Controlled Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating

  • Ahuja A.
  • Dreyer K.
  • Eggleton B.
  • Mikkelsen B.
  • Nielsen T.
  • Raybon G.
  • Rogers J.
  • Stulz S.
  • Westbrook P.

We demonstrate for the first time that an electrically tunable chirped fiber Bragg grating can be used to trim the dispersion in a 160 Gb/s TDM system with a RZ duty cycle of 30%. The fully packaged dispersion compensation module is capable of recovering the 2 ps pulses over a ...

BIST-Based Detection and Diagnosis of Multiple Faults in FPGAs

  • Abramovici M.
  • C. Stroud

We present a BIST-based approach able to detect and accurately diagnose any single and most multiple faulty programmable logic blocks (PLBs) in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). For any faulty PLB, we also identify its internal faulty modules or modes of operation. This accurate diagnosis provides the basis for both ...

Transmission Characteristics of Graded-Index Perfluorinated Polymer Optical Fibers

  • Blyler L.
  • Giaretta G.
  • M. Dueser
  • Reed W.
  • Shevchuk G.
  • White W.

Single mode and multimode silica optical fibers have long dominated optical networking applications in telecommunications and enterprise data networking, where cost is not an overriding issue. However, as the demand for bandwidth increases in the small office, home and mobile environments, it has become increasingly desirable to develop low-cost, high-performance ...

Chemical Bonding and Fermi Level Pinning at Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces

  • Tung R.

The insensitivity of experimentally observed Schottky barrier heights (SBH) to the metal work function is known as Fermi level pinning. Since the time of Bardeen, this phenomenon has traditionally been attributed to interface gap states, even though many basic assumptions of the gap state models have been shown to disagree ...

Focused Ion Beam Induced Copper Artifact Dose Study

  • Anderson S.
  • Brown S.
  • Rossie B.
  • Shofner T.
  • Stevie F.

Reduced feature dimensions in microelectronic devices has led to a growing reliance on the focused ion beam (FIB) for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation. The introduction of copper for use in electrical interconnects will increase this reliance. Copper, much more so than aluminum, tends ...

A Stress Relief Method to Control Warping of Focused Ion Beam Prepared Membranes for Transmission Electron Microscopy

  • Brown S.
  • Irwin R.
  • Rossie B.
  • Shofner T.
  • Stevie F.

The continued decrease in microelectronic feature dimensions has led to a reliance on the focused ion beam (FIB) for site-specific transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation. To maximize the capabilities of the FIB, methods must be developed to consistently produce specimens thin enough to generate TEM lattice images. The limiting ...