A New Capacity Scaling Law in Ultra-Dense Networks
We discover a new capacity scaling law in ultradense networks (UDNs) under practical system assumptions, such as a general multi-piece path loss model, a non-zero base station (BS) to user equipment (UE) antenna height difference, and a finite UE density. The intuition and implication of this new capacity scaling law are completely different from that found in year 2011. That law indicated that the increase of the interference power caused by a denser network would be exactly compensated by the increase of the signal power due to the reduced distance between transmitters and receivers, and thus network capacity should grow linearly with network densification. However, we find that both the signal and interference powers become bounded in practical UDNs, which leads to a constant capacity scaling law. As a result, network densification should be stopped at a certain level for a given UE density, because the network capacity will reach its limit due to (i) the bounded signal and interference powers, and (ii) a finite frequency reuse factor because of a finite UE density. Our new discovery on the constant capacity scaling law also resolves the recent concerns about network capacity collapsing in UDNs, e.g., the capacity crash due to a non-zero BS-to-UE antenna height difference, or a bounded path loss model of the near-field (NF) effect, etc.